Garnets are nesosilicates. 0rigin of name: from ancient Greeks as color reminded them of the pomegranate seed or granatum. Garnets do not show cleavage (the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces) so when they fracture under stress, sharp irregular pieces are formed. Because the chemical composition of garnet varies, the atomic bonds in some species are stronger than in others. The harder species are often used for abrasive purposes. It is found in the regions of Kenya, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Canada, USA, Czech Republic and Spain.
Color: ( Medium Color) virtually all colors
Zodiac Sign: Capricorn
Amethyst is a transparent purple quartz. Origin of name from the Greek -amethystos- "not drunken". It is mined in Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina, Zambia, Namibia and other African countries. Very dark amethyst, mostly in small sizes, is also mined in Australia.
Color: (Medium Color) the color range varies from pale lilac to deep purple.
Symbol: Joy, Confidence
Zodiac Sign: Aquarius
Aquamarine belongs to the gemstone family of Beryls. Origin of name Latin "aqua"meaning water and "mar"sea. Legend has it that Mermaids tails were made of aquamarine. Aquamarine is usually free of inclusions and possesses a superior brilliance. The more intense the color of an Aquamarine, the higher its value. The principle supply of aquamarine stones comes from Brazil, Russia, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan
Color: Deep color (Sea water Blue, Pale blue to light greenish)
Symbol: Harmony, Purity
Zodiac Sign: Pisces
American Diamond or AD is a synthetic variant of the mineral baddeleyite which is extremely rare in nature. It is the oxide of the metallic element zirconium, zirconium dioxide. It was first used in the Russian space program to serve as a window to photograph through, it was not used in jewelry until 1969 when somebody decided to facet the material. It is often used as a diamond simulant. Cubic zirconia should not be confused with zircon, which is a rare naturally occurring gemstone.
Color: By adding other minerals in the creative process AD's can come in any color as well as the colorless variety.
N.B. Key features that distinguish AD from diamond:
American Diamonds have more dispersion than diamonds so show more fire.
An AD has a Mohs rating of 8.5-9 and Diamonds have a rating of 10.
An AD is 1.7 times heavier than a diamond of equivalent size.
AD’s are optically flawless whereas the majority of diamonds have inclusions or flaws
AD has a refractive index of 2.176, compared to a diamond's 2.417.
AD can be made in most cases entirely colorless: equivalent to a perfect "D" on diamond's color grading scale but it is rare to find diamonds are truly colorless.
AD’s are thermal insulators whilst diamonds are among the most efficient thermal conductors.
Zodiac Sign: Aries
Diamonds are a form of carbon. Origin of name: From Greek for invincible.
Color: It is rare to find diamonds are truly colorless. Diamonds come in all colors but these natural Fancy color Diamonds are rare and can be very expensive. One out of 10,000 normal diamonds is a fancy color diamond. The color of a fancy colored diamond is measured differently to a normal diamonds. The grading scale is based on the intensity of the color. The GIA fancy color grading scale is: Faint, Very Light, Light, Fancy Light, Fancy, Fancy Intense, Fancy Vivid, Fancy Deep and Fancy Dark.
A diamond is a crystal completely made of the element carbon, except for trace impurities like boron and nitrogen. The arrangement of the carbon atoms or its crystal structure within the diamond gives it its unique properties. As well as being the hardest known material, it is also the least compressible, and the stiffest material, the best thermal conductor with an extremely low thermal expansion, chemically inert to most acids and alkalis, immensely strong, rigid structure with a very high melting point (3800°C) diamond is the hardest known natural substance.
Zodiac Sign: Aries
D: Flawless (FL) = 100%
E: Internally Flawless (IF) =99%
F: Very Very Small Inclusions (VVS1) (VVS2) =98%
G: Very Small Inclusions (VS1) (VS2) =97%
H: Small Inclusions (SI1) (SI2) =96%
I: Imperfect (I1) (I2) (I3) =95%
List of diamond mines
Angola, Botswana, South Africa, Congo, Zimbabwe, Tanzania
Canada, United States of America
11-C-1 MM Alam Road Gulberg III
Lahore - Pakistan
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